Affordable Homes Programme
The Government’s programme of investment in affordable housing in England – channelled via the Homes and Communities Agency from 2011 to 2017 and now via Homes England. In Wales investment is via the Welsh Government.
Affordable housing is rented, shared ownership or low-cost home ownership housing provided to eligible households whose needs are not met by the market. The current definition for rental homes is rents not greater than 80% of local housing market rents. See:
Asset of Community Value
A term derived from the Localism Act 2011 and defined in the Assets of Community Value (England) Regulations 2012. They are buildings or land deemed to be of community value by a local authority.
An asset transfer occurs when one person or organisation gives ownership of an asset to another person or organisation. A Community Asset Transfer is the transfer of management and/or ownership of public land and buildings from its owner (usually a local authority) to a community organisation.
An assured tenancy is a legal category of residential tenancy to an individual (or individuals jointly) in English land law that can be contrasted to a tenancy beyond seven years (a lease) and affords by statute a degree of security of tenure to the tenant.
Assured Shorthold Tenancy (AST)
The most common form of tenancy is now an AST. A tenancy can be an AST if all of the following apply: the landlord is a private landlord or housing association; the tenancy started on or after 15 January 1989; the property is the tenants’ main accommodation; the landlord does not live in the property. An AST gives a tenant the legal right to live in a property for a fixed period of time or it might roll on a week-to-week or month-to-month basis (this is known as a periodic tenancy). There are certain basic rights that a tenant has in an assured shorthold tenancy.
Under section 123 of the Local Government Act 1972, a local authority has the power to dispose of land. The main caveat to this power is that the council must not do so for “a consideration less than the best that can be reasonably obtained”. This is interpreted as being the best price achievable in the open market.
It is possible to dispose of land at less than best consideration with the consent of the Secretary of State for Housing, Communities and Local Government
Big Issue Invest
This is the social investment arm of The Big Issue Group (originating from the Big Issue magazine). It provides finance for sustainable social enterprises and charities across the UK, including loans and investment ranging from £20,000 to £3 million.
Big Local is a £200m National Lottery Funded programme, which started in 2012. It channels £1m grants over 10 years into each of 150 neighbourhoods in England. Its aim is to support resident-led regeneration. Big Local is administered by a purpose designed national organisation, Local Trust.
Big Society Capital
Big Society Capital is an independent social investment institution in the UK. It provides loan finance to enable other bodies to give financial or other support to third sector organisations. BSC’s origins were in the Cameron Coalition Government’s ‘Big Society’ ideas of the early 2010s.
Blight is when the value of a property or land is reduced because of large scale, or major, public works and the owners are unable to sell it at market value. Under the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 (as amended), the UK Government and public authorities have legislative powers to buy blighted land and property.
Capital funding has two related meanings: In general investment terms, it is any funding for the purchase of land, buildings, equipment, etc. that is used to produce
products or services. In everyday accounting terms, the phrase ‘capital funding’ is used to identify items that add value to an organisation’s balance sheet – in contrast to ‘revenue funding ‘ for running costs.
A charge is a legal term to describe an agreement which gives the lender the right to have the particular asset and its proceeds of sale appropriated in order to pay off debt. A charge does not transfer ownership; it is merely an encumbrance on the asset, often registered (in England and Wales) with the Land Registry where land is involved. It is a fundamental component of a mortgage agreement.
Charitable Incorporated Organisation (CIO)
A CIO is a relatively new form of legal entity, introduced in 2013. It is designed for non-profit organisations in the UK. The main benefits of a CIO are that it offers the legal personality and limited liability of a company, together with the benefits of being a registered charity. A CIO only needs to register with the Charity Commission and not Companies House.
The Charity Commissioners for England and Wales are the registrar and regulator of charities. They provide guidance and regulation including registration of documents for filing and the provision of charity information to the public.
The CIC Regulator determines applications from companies as to whether they are eligible to be registered as a CIC. (Community Interest Company). It also provides guidance and regulation to CIC’s including where necessary investigations and enforcement powers to ensure that the CIC’s assets are used in accordance with the CIC’s objectives and relevant legislation.
The Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy is a professional institute for accountants working in the public services, national audit agencies, in major accountancy firms, and in other bodies where public money needs to be managed.
A clawback is the act of retrieving money already paid out, typically by taxation, but also by other means such as repayments linked to specific times or conditions. It is not the same as a loan repayment which will be detailed and agreed under a loan or mortgage agreement.
CLT Social Investment Fund
The Community Land Trust Social Investment Fund is a specialist fund to support the development of community land trust affordable housing projects in England and Wales. It was first launched in 2008. It provides funding and expert support to fledgling CLTs from initial feasibility through to the construction of affordable homes. It was re-launched in 2014 for 5 more years of operation and will close in July 2019.
Community Benefit Society (CBS)
A CBS is a legal form brought in by the Co-operative and Community Benefit Societies Act 2014. The Act replaced the former designation of ‘Industrial and Provident Societies’. CBS’s are organisations that are run for the benefit of the wider community, re-investing profits in the community. Unlike a co-operative society, profits cannot be distributed to members of a community benefit society. CBSs are registered with and regulated by, the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA – see below).
Community Bond issues
Bond issues or loan stock issues (the terms are interchangeable) are offers to several people to lend money to an organisation on similar terms for several years. It is long-term debt capital. The main difference between a share and a bond issue is that, in the latter case, there is a commitment to repay the amount invested after a number of years. Community Bond issues are a mechanism which allows a not for profit or charitable organisation to gather finance from a community of supporters and investors. (See also community share issues below).
Community Anchor Organisation
These are local organisations which provide focus and support to renewal, self-help and capacity building activities in local communities. They may take various legal forms and have different core functions but the common denominators are that they are independent, community-led and there for the long term. Most Community anchors are members of Locality.
Community capacity building
Capacity building is one aspect of community development. It is the process by which individual and organisations obtain, improve, and retain the skills, knowledge, confidence and other attributes needed to perform roles and achieve goals. Community capacity building applies these concepts to communities and community organisations. The phrase can include the building of both human and infrastructural capacity (eg buildings and facilities) but it is most commonly used in relation to the development of human capacity.
Community Housing Fund
Government funding specifically designed to support the development of CLH. The £60 million a year programme was launched in December 2016. The first year’s Funds were allocated via local authorities. Subsequent years funds are being distributed by Homes England. The aim of the Fund is to transform the community-led housing sector and scale up provision as part of the Government’s drive for a radical increase in housing supply
Community Interest Company (CIC)
A CIC is a limited liability company designed for social enterprises which have the specific aim of providing benefit to a community and using its income, assets and profits for that community. It can be limited by shares or by guarantee but must satisfy a ‘community interest test’ i.e. that it is working for the benefit of a designated community. CICs are also subject to an ‘asset lock’ – which means that if and when it is closed, any remaining assets must be used for the benefit of the community or passed on to an organisation which will do this.
Community Land Trust (CLT)
Community Land Trusts are a form of community-led housing, set up and run by ordinary people to develop and manage homes as well as other assets. CLTs act as long-term stewards of housing, ensuring that it remains genuinely affordable, based on what people actually earn in their area, not just for now but for every future occupier. CLTs are not a legal form in themselves, however they are defined in law so there are certain things that a CLT must be and do. See:
Community organising is the work of building relationships and networks in communities to create social and political change through collective action.
The concept originated in the USA in the latter half of the 20th century and is now established in many parts of the world. Community Organisers are usually local people trained and recruited to initiate and support issue-based community action.
Community Right to Bid
Introduced in the Localism Act 2011, this gives communities a right to identify a property that is believed to be of value to their social interests or social wellbeing and gives them a fair chance to make a bid to buy the property on the open market if the property owner decides to sell. Local authorities must keep a list of such properties. If the assets comes up for sale, the community can ‘pause’ the sale and take up to six months to find the funding required to buy the asset.
Community Right to Build
Introduced by the Localism Act 2011, as a neighborhood planning tool, this gives communities the right to draw up plans and submit plans for community facilities including housing. The mechanism is via a Community Right to Build Order which is consulted upon, checked by an independent examiner and put to a local referendum. If more than 50% vote in favour, planning permission is granted. What is important about this process is that the community gives permission for the building to go ahead – not the local authority as happens with a traditional planning application.
Community Right to Challenge
Introduced in the Localism Act 2011, this is the right for community organisations to submit an expression of interest in running services of local authority and fire and rescue authorities on behalf of that authority.
Community self-build housing
Community self-build is where a group of households come together to jointly develop self-built housing. As a group is involved, this may qualify as community-led housing. (See also self-build and custom build) See:
There is no legal definition of community shares. The term is used here to refer to a unique form of share capital called ‘withdrawable shares’ which can only be issued by co-operatives or community benefit societies registered with the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA). (See also community bond issues above - the main difference between a share and a bond issue is that, in the latter, there is a commitment to repay the amount invested after a number of years.) See:
Community-led Housing Support hubs
Support or enabling hubs are regional or sub-regional not-for-profit agencies which provide a range of promotional, technical and support resources for community-led housing initiatives.
A commuted sum is a capital payment made by a developer to a council towards the costs of the future implications of a development. These implications may include greater pressure on roads, services, the environment or local facilities. In the case of housing developments, commuted sums are often paid via the mechanism of ‘section 106 agreements’, (for definition, see below). They may also include sums paid in-lieu of providing affordable housing in a development.
Companies House is the registrar and regulator of companies incorporated in England and Wales. It has three main functions: the incorporation, re-registration and striking-off of companies; the registration of documents that must be filed under company, insolvency and related legislation; and the provision of company information to the public.
These are public sector organisations that are defined as such and subject to the Public Contracts Regulations 2015. They including councils, central Government departments and the like. The position of housing associations is more complicated. Because they are so closely regulated by the Government, they have to comply with EU procurement rules. See:
A Co-operative is an organisation which is owned and run jointly by its members, who share the profits or benefits. It may be a worker (owned and run) and/or a member owned and run business. Or it can be a housing organisation owned and democratically controlled by its tenants. In the UK, cooperatives are now registered and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA).
Custom build housing is where a developer or builder is contracted by a home owner to create a ‘custom built’ property often with an element of self-build by the future owner
Councils for Voluntary Service
Council for Voluntary Service (CVSs) are independent voluntary organisations which support third sector organisations in their area. They offer a wide variety of services and support, for example training, advocacy, or advice on funding. CVSs exist in many but not all local authority areas in England. They are brought together nationally by the National Association for Voluntary and Community Action. Each county in Wales has a County Voluntary Council (CVC) rather than a CVS.
Crowdfunding is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising many small amounts of money from a large number of people, typically via the Internet. Crowdfunding is a form of crowdsourcing and of alternative finance. In 2015, it was estimated that worldwide over US$34 billion was raised this way.
Decent Homes Standard
The Decent Homes Standard is a minimum standard for social housing. It is a standard to which homes are built or improved. It covers health and safety hazards, the state of repair, facilities and services and thermal comfort. The standard allows all landlords to determine, in consultation with their tenants, what works need to be completed, and in what order, to ensure the standard is met.
De Minimus is a legal term meaning a minimum level or amount – usually below which certain criteria will not apply. For example, ‘The grant programme has a de minimis level of £100,000.’
Development Trusts are organisations that are community based, owned and led. They may be engaged in the economic, environmental and social regeneration of a defined area or community. They are usually companies limited by guarantee with charitable status, with membership drawn from among local people and/or organisations. Many development trusts are members of Locality.
In company law, a director is a person who carries out the role of a director of a company, taking strategic decisions and owing duties and responsibilities to the company that they are a director of. Confusingly, the term director is also often used as part of a job title for people who may not be company directors.
When councils and housing associations build new homes for sale, some are sold at a 25%-50% discount. This is known as a Discounted Sale. Discounted sale schemes of various types may also be used by developers and/or housing associations as part of marketing strategies and/ or mixed tenure options (part rent, part buy).
The process of legal, financial and other checks undertaken before a deal or contract is entered into.
Empty Homes Grants Programme
This was a government grants programme to bring empty properties back into use, with funding rounds from 2011 to 2015 and then 2015 to 2018. In the latter, it has been amalgamated with the wider Affordable Homes Programme via the Homes and Communities Agency (from 2018 ’Homes England’)
Financial Conduct Authority
The Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) regulates the financial services industry in the UK. Its role includes protecting consumers, keeping the industry stable, and promoting healthy competition between financial service providers.
This is a website developed and run by NCVO – the National Council for Voluntary Organisations. It provides access to thousands of grants, contacts and loan finance opportunities from local, national and international funding sources. Access is available through a subsidised subscription system.
General Block Exemption
A block exemption regulation is a rule in an industry, which debars organisations from some business activities in order to create competition. In the case of housing, the rule allows exemption from certain European Union (EU) requirements relating to ‘State Aid’. It simplifies the procedure for aid-granting authorities at national, regional and local level, meaning that certain kinds of spending do not have to be approved by the EU.
General Disposal Consent
This removes the requirement for public authorities to seek specific consent from the Secretary of State for any disposal of land where certain (social, economic and environmental) conditions are met. Terms are set out in the Local Government Act 1972 and the General Disposal Consent 2003, amended by the Growth and Infrastructure Act 2013.
Home Building Fund
Established in 2016, the HBF is a flexible source of funding administered by Homes England on behalf of government. It provides development finance loans to meet the development costs of building homes for sale or rent and infrastructure finance loans for site preparation and the infrastructure needed to enable housing to progress. The fund is to support innovation, including via community led housing projects.
Homes England was established in January 2018 as the successor body to the Homes and Communities Agency. It is an executive non-departmental public body, sponsored by the Ministry of Housing, Communities & Local Government.
Homes England brings together planning expertise and new land buying powers. Its stated roles include; securing land for housebuilding; increasing the number of new homes that are built in England, including affordable homes and homes for market, sale or rent; improving housing conditions; and helping to stimulate local economic growth. From January 2018 the regulation function of Homes England is the responsibility of a separate directorate within Homes England, The Regulator of Social Housing, pending new legislation.
Housing Market Renewal
This concept originated with the extensive government funded Housing Market Renewal (HMR) Pathfinders which operated in areas of low housing demand between 2002 and 2011. The intention of the strategy was to renew failing housing markets in the Midlands and North of England and reconnect them to regional markets.
Intermediate housing involves homes for sale and rent provided at a cost above social rent, but below market levels subject to the criteria in the Affordable Housing definition above. These can include shared equity (shared ownership and equity loans), other low-cost homes for sale and intermediate rent, but not affordable rented housing.
To secure an allocation of funding from Homes England it’s necessary to become registered with them as a “Investment Partner” or to be a member of an “Investment Consortium” fronted by a lead investment partner.
Land banking is the practice of aggregating or stockpiling parcels of land for future sale or development.
Leasehold Housing Co-operative
A housing co-operative that has been granted a lease to occupy and manage its properties from the freeholder, who will have developed the housing on its behalf.
The Localism Act 2011 (c. 20) is an Act of Parliament that changed the powers of local government in England. The aim of the Act is to facilitate the devolution of decision-making powers from central government control to individuals and communities.
Locality is the national membership body for over 500 enterprising community led organisations working to help neighbourhoods thrive, often through developing housing projects. See: http://locality.org.uk/
Local Lettings Policy
An allocation policy drawn up between a local authority and /or housing association partner and a CLH organisation, to take into account local circumstances and priorities, without overriding its statutory responsibilities
A lease which runs for a period (e.g. 99 years) long enough to enable the leaseholder to raise loan finance against the asset.
Local Authority Development Company
Private companies set up by local authorities, in which the local authority is the sole shareholder which develop housing of varying tenures for local people. Profits are re-invested by the local authority into further housing, sometimes in partnership with community organisations.
The use of local people in construction schemes as a way of tackling local unemployment.
Local Plans are drawn up by local planning authorities and set out a framework for the future development of the area, addressing needs and opportunities in relation to housing, the economy, community facilities and infrastructure. Together with Neighbourhood Plans they are the starting-point in guiding decisions about individual development proposals. See:
Local Planning Authority
A local planning authority (LPA) is the local authority, or other relevant public body that is empowered by law to exercise statutory town planning functions for a particular area of the United Kingdom.
Local Support Hubs
Bodies providing a range of technical assistance and advice to organisations wanting to set-up and develop community led housing within a particular geographical area.
Market Economy Investor Principle (MEIP)
This relates to the analysis of State Aid and its purpose is to establish the extent to which an aid measure confers an economic advantage on the recipient of that aid.
Is the portal for community rights information and grant programmes funded by the Ministry of Housing, Communities & Local Government, for residents in England. See: https://mycommunity.org.uk/
National Community Land Trust Network
NCLTN is the membership body for over 220 Community Land Trusts (CLTs), which are a form of community-led housing, set up and run by ordinary people to develop and manage homes as well as other assets of importance to the community http://www.communitylandtrusts.org.uk/
National Planning Policy Framework
The National Planning Policy Framework is -the framework for planning policy in England and was published in March 2012. See:
Neighbourhood planning is a right for communities introduced through the Localism Act 2011. Through it, communities can shape development in their areas through the production of Neighbourhood Development Plans ( Neighbourhood Plans), which enable them to set planning policies.
Neighbourhood Development Order
NDOs can grant planning permission for specific types of development in a specific neighbourhood area. A Neighbourhood Development Order can therefore apply to a specific site, sites, or wider geographical area and grant planning permission for a certain type or types of development. https://www.gov.uk/guidance/neighbourhood-planning--2
A Neighbourhood Forum is a body that leads on the production of a neighbourhood plan in neighbourhood areas that are not covered (either in part or in whole) by a town or parish council.
New Deal for Communities
This was as a £2billion Government programme which ran from 1998 -2011 in 39 areas, which was intended to pioneer radical new ways to regenerate deprived areas.
New Homes Bonus
This is a grant paid by central government to local authorities to incentivise housing growth, based on the net increase in Council Tax revenue arising from new-build homes, conversions and long-term empty homes brought back into use.
On-costs are revenue expenditure relating to professional fees and charges, such as those incurred by employing architects, securing planning permission and legal fees, which arise in connection with capital expenditure on housing projects.
This is an agreement which grants a right (but not an obligation) for a potential buyer to acquire an asset from a seller at a specified price (or a price to be calculated in accordance with a pre-agreed formula). The option is generally exercisable during a specified period.
Overage is used to describe a sum of money, in addition to the original sale price, which a seller of land may be entitled to receive following completion if and when the buyer complies with agreed conditions.
Parish Plans can be much broader than neighbourhood plans, covering more than just planning issues, but it is non-statutory and not part of the formal planning process. Their development will be led by town or parish councils but must take into account the views of the whole community and conform with the area's Sustainable Community Strategy.
Passivhaus a rigorous voluntary standard for energy efficiency in a building reducing its ecological footprint. It results in ultra-low energy buildings that require little energy for space heating or cooling. See: http://www.passivhaustrust.org.uk/
Power to Change
This is an independent charitable foundation set up in 2015 with an endowment of £150 million from The Big Lottery Fund, charged with developing and supporting community businesses across England, over a period of 10 years. http://www.powertochange.org.uk/
Parish and town councils set precepts which are in addition to council tax and are reviewed annually.
Government procurement regulations normally cover public works, services and supply contracts entered into by a public authority. Government procurement in the UK is governed by the Public Contracts Regulations 2015, Part 3 of the Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015
Local authorities are required to “have regard” to CIPFA's Prudential Code for Capital Finance in Local Authorities (Prudential Code) when developing their capital investment plans which should be affordable, prudent and sustainable. See: http://www.cipfa.org/about-cipfa/our-products
Public Contract Regulations
Procurement for public sector bodies, such as local government, health and education, is subject to the Public Contracts Regulations. The over-riding procurement policy requirement is that all public procurement must be based on “value for money”. See: https://www.gov.uk/guidance/public-sector-procurement-policy
Public Works Loans Board
The Public Works Loan Board (PWLB) is a statutory body of the UK Government that provides loans to local authorities and local councils ( parish and town councils), primarily for capital projects, from the National Loans Fund. http://www.dmo.gov.uk/responsibilities/local-authority-lending-pwlb
An independent review (2007), which looked at community management and ownership of community assets, led by Barry Quirk, Lewisham Council's Chief Executive. See:
Regional CLH Networks
Ad hoc networks of community-led housing providers and supporters.
Registered Provider (RP)
To own and manage housing financed by Homes England, it is necessary to secure registration with Homes England as a Registered Provider. See: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/599282/Guidance_-_Registration_for_new_entrants.pdf
Resonance Affordable Homes Rental Fund
This is a fund managed by Resonance that can lend up to 100% to community land trusts or other community-led organisations wanting to develop affordable homes. It offers loans from £0.1-£2.1m@ fixed interest rate of 5-7% over 8 years for pre/post development. See: http://resonance.ltd.uk/get-investment/affordable-homes-rental-fund-ahrf/
These are grants which provide finance of one kind or another for areas of non-capital expenditure.
Revolving Land Bank
Creating a revolving land bank provides up-front capital to allow communities to buy sites and reduce risks. Once one development is in place, as new homes are completed and then sold, funding is recouped and can be re-invested in new schemes.
Revolving Loan Fund
This is a self-sustaining capital or revenue fund, which is regularly replenished as loans are repaid by borrowers. Terms and conditions will vary according to the fund’s objectives and the availability of funding.
Right of Pre-emption
This is a contractual right to acquire certain property newly coming into existence before it can be offered to any other person or entity. Also called a "first option to buy."
Right to Buy Receipts
These accrue to local authorities, as a result of the sale of housing in their ownership. Their use is subject to restrictions, but they can be used towards funding up to 30% of the cost of replacement housing. Some local authorities make grants to CLH organisations (eg Leeds & Hull) for this purpose.
Right to Buy Replacement Programmes
These programmes use finance realised from Right to Buy Receipts to fund new housing (new build or refurbishment) via grants of up to 30% of scheme costs. Leeds City Council & Hull City Council both have such programmes.
Rural Community Councils
There are 38 RCCs which form a national coalition Action with Communities in Rural England (ACRE). Their remit is to promote rural community life. Some are now directly involved in community-led housing provision. See: http://www.acre.org.uk/
Rural Exception Sites
These are defined by The National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) as; a small site used for affordable housing in perpetuity, where sites would not normally be used for housing.
Rural Housing Enablers
RHE’s, where they exist, provide independent support and advice to local communities and act as a conduit between the community and other parties such as developers and the Local Authority.
Section 106 Agreements
These are legal agreements (Town & Country Planning Act 1990) between local authorities and developers. They are linked to the granting of planning permission and make a development proposal acceptable to the local authority. Often, but not exclusively, they are used to require affordable housing as part of a housing development.
Self-build is the practice of creating an individual home for oneself through a variety of different methods. The self-builder's input into this process varies from doing the actual building work to contracting out all the work to an architect or building company. The term self-build in the UK is expressly used when an individual obtains a building plot and then builds his or her own home on that plot. (See also community self-build and custom build)
Renovation of vacant properties, by community led organisations, to provide accommodation for local people, often also creating training and volunteering opportunities.
Shared Ownership Leases
These are a form of leasehold property referred to as a shared ownership lease where the leaseholder can purchase a share of a property (house or flat) and pay rent on that part of the property retained by the landlord.
Social impact is the effect of an activity on a community in terms of its economic, environmental and social well-being.
This is loan finance provided for voluntary, community and social enterprise organisations, which investors expect to get back and also to create social impact.
Loan funds and banks that primarily finance projects which would not attract investment from commercial lenders, because of risk considerations.
The Public Services (Social Value) Act came into force on 31 January 2013 and requires public authorities to have regard to economic, social and environmental well-being in connection with public services contracts. See:
This is the process of increasing the level of ownership in a property, bought on a shared ownership basis, by buying some or all of the remaining shares in the property.
State Aid is a phrase that refers to financial aid from a Member State of the EU to a business or sector which has the potential to distort competition and affect trade between EU Member States. There are rules governing the provision of State Aid. See: https://www.gov.uk/guidance/state-aid
Sometimes referred to as a Large Scale Voluntary Transfer (LSVT), this is a process whereby the ownership of council housing is transferred to a housing association. 1.3 million dwellings were transferred between 1998 and 2008.
Strategic Environmental Assessment
The Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive is an EU requirement that seeks to provide a high level of protection of the environment by integrating environmental considerations into the process of preparing certain plans and programmes. A local planning authority must ensure that its local plan and proposals for neighbourhood plans are compatible with these obligations.
Supplementary Planning Document
Supplementary Planning Documents (SPD) Documents add further detail to the policies in a Local Plan. They can be used to provide further guidance for development on specific sites, or on particular issues, such as design.
This is the contribution made by an individual/s to a project in the form of unpaid labour/effort, which is assigned a financial value, that can then be acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the project.
A Trustee is defined as ‘being a person who has the general control and management of the administration of a charity’.
The Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006 (TUPE) protects employees' terms and conditions when a business or undertaking, or part of one, is transferred to a new employer (the transferee)